Evaluation of the mental burden and fatigue in teachers by teleworking caused by covid-19

Introduction: A mental load study was carried out on 103 teachers from different universities in central Ecuador using the NASA-Task Load Index (LTX) method, in the study the mental, physical, time, effort, performance and the frustration level were quantified to different age groups, to detect the psychosocial risk factor and incidence in normal fatigue and chronic fatigue. Methods: A sample of 103 university teachers divided into 9 age segments and from different educational institutions in the central area of ​​Ecuador that carry out teaching-learning activities in telework mode was used. First, a survey was applied according to the NASA-Task Load Index (LTX) method, to quantify the 6 factors or dimensions considered by the method. Then a health questionnaire related to simple and chronic mental load was applied. This research was carried out in two phases, the first for weighting and the second for scoring. Results: The application of the NASA LTX method managed to detect that the greatest affectation by mental load is in the age group of: 55 59 years with a score of 1250, then those from 40 to 44 years with a value of 1020 and those from 50 to 54 years with a value of 1010, then follow the other groups with values ​​less than 100. The mental fatigue value determines values ​​of 100% of affectation to the group of 35 to 39 years of age and 50 to 54 years an 87.5% of affectation to the group of 40 to 44 years of age, the other groups present values ​​less than 75 % of affectation by discomfort of mental fatigue. All groups present simple and chronic fatigue complaints. Conclution: The results identify as the group most affected by load and mental fatigue, teachers who are over 39 years of age due to telework activities. On the other hand, the affectation of simple and chronic mental fatigue is proportional and significantly affects all groups

Danilo Andrés Terán Villacís, Manolo Alexander Córdova Suárez, Juan Pablo Muquinche Puca, Paulina del Roció Gordón Villalba


Quality model for improving efficiency in Ecuador's public institutions

Introduction: Every public institution has a mission to provide quality care to the citizenry, but variations or limitations such as budget, accessibility, technological difficulties, among other factors hinder the efficiency of the institutions, which is why strategies must be sought to promote continuous improvement despite these difficulties. Objective: To present a quality model for improving the efficiency of Ecuador's public institutions, a model that takes into account the adversities these institutions are going through and that cannot incur large investments. Methodology: The model takes theoretical and historical research, so it will be a quantitative research when evaluating the situations faced by the public sector, but it will also be quantitative when trying to standardize with statistical models the results. The research will begin with the survey of the structure of the root problems through the application of surveys and interviews, forming a fishbone, and be analyzed with the Pareto diagram. Results: To present a model of continuous improvement that drives to improve the institutional image, but without incurring in too high investments that affect the budgets deducted with which the entities of the public sector count, the model will be focused in instruments of quality of zero cost like the 5s, identification and elimination of mudas, training and control of production either of products and services that the entity delivers. Conclusions: The public sector entities have always been seen as inferior based on different scenarios, but always catalogued as inefficient. The model presented seeks to change this paradigm so that the improvement does not entail expenses that are outside the pre-established budgets.

César Iván Casanova Villalba, Maybelline Jaqueline Herrera Sánchez, Cecilia Mercedes Navarrete Zambrano, Silvana Elizabeth Ruiz López


Tangible and intangible cultural inventory of La Maná canton, Cotopaxi Province year 2020

Introduction. The cultural inventory is a tool that is very useful to identify, register and display the movable and immovable property of the canton and its different parishes, at the same time, it is committed to promoting the understanding and social appropriation of the country's cultural heritage, and committing to improve the social capacity for the correct management of wealth. Objective. Prepare a tangible and intangible cultural inventory of the canton, in order to contribute to local development. Methodology. The present study was carried out in the canton of La Maná, where an information survey was developed using the following methods: qualitative, historical, descriptive and synthetic method, which helped to collect concrete and precise information, therefore, the bibliographic research, on-site visits and, the methodology of the National Institute of Cultural Heritage was also used, the field work for the collection of information was carried out in October 2020 with a duration of 30 days during which interviews were conducted with the inhabitants, tourists and representatives of the parishes. Results. The results show us that 86% of those surveyed consider it feasible to draw up a tangible and intangible cultural inventory of La Maná canton, having a total of 58 cultural manifestations within the canton. Conclusion. The collection of information in the field of all the tangible and intangible assets that exist in the La Maná canton was analyzed, it was found that the longest-lived people in each parish are those who carry all the knowledge of the history and culture that they represent in each This is important since it is expected to continue to spread in current and future generations due to the fact that these strengths can be used as an entrance to the canton's economy, increasing visitors who love culture.

Laura Melisa Castillo Oviedo, Mishel del Rocio Chango Tenelema, Natalia Geoconda Zambrano Cuadro


Influencia del ciclo menstrual en nadadoras

La optimización del rendimiento deportivo presupone considerar varios aspectos. En el caso de la natación como en el resto de los deportes es preciso determinar ¿En qué medida incide el ciclo menstrual en el rendimiento deportivo de las nadadoras?, este tema continúa siendo un aspecto a debatir entre entrenadores, directivos y las propias deportistas.  Siguiendo esta línea el objetivo del estudio busca reflexionar sobre la incidencia del ciclo menstrual en la optimización del rendimiento deportivo de las nadadoras.  Para dar salida al problema objeto de estudio la investigación asume una metodología basada en la revisión bibliográfica de los 10 últimos años sobre las principales fuentes, bases de datos, repositorios de revistas científicas y tesis en torno al tema. El análisis de las teorías precedentes permitió sustentar dos ideas fundamentales: la primera es que, independientemente de las investigaciones realizadas las cuales han intentado demostrar que sí existe una estrecha relación entre el ciclo menstrual y el rendimiento deportivo, aún no se logra un criterio único al respecto; dando lugar a la segunda idea y es que se comparte con los estudios precedentes en los cuales se reafirma la necesidad de profundizar en el diagnóstico y características de cada deportista para poder considerar dentro del proceso de planificación del entrenamiento deportivo la adaptabilidad de las actividades y acciones a desarrollar durante su ciclo menstrual desde el principio de individualización del entrenamiento y de este modo potenciar  el óptimo rendimiento deportivo.

Leila Yajaira Iturralde Guerra


Endogenous development strategy: a proposal for Ecuadorian communities

Introduction. The endogenous and exogenous development of a territory refers to the mechanism of its internal and external economic development, respectively. Several studies ensure that there is a high potential focused on the development of rural territories immersed in a scheme of transformation of their productive orientation, especially in places there are political guidelines that support employment and education, and emphasize endogenous development as a viable strategy for rural development. Objective. Develop an implementation strategy for a territorial development process based on endogenous principles that allows local governments and their communities to determine an action plan with defined lines of work in a participatory development process with a comprehensive approach. Methodology. The research is analytical, descriptive, and logical-deductive of a non-experimental type; the proposal is submitted to a validation process applying the Delphi method of expert judgment in the area of ​​rural development and planning. Result. As a result, there is a strategy called DAPDEP (Diagnosis - Actors involved - community Policies - human and cultural DEvelopment - Action plan, validated for its application in the Ecuadorian rural sector. Conclusion. The proposed DAPDEP strategy has an adequate assessment for its implementation, an average of 86% experts validate the guide and 85% recommend its application in rural sectors of Ecuador, fulfilling the objective of the research and responding favorably to the research question posed.

Segundo Martin Quito Cortez, Dorian Damián Flores Aguilera, Yonimiler Castillo Ortega


Proposal of normative guidelines for the use of rural soil in the case of canton Palora Morona Santiago province

Enhancing the advantages of each territory is the main idea of endogenous development. For its practical realization, it will be essential the instrumentation of an adequate use and management of the soil, with an strong basis on Ecuadorian legislation. The case of the Palora canton, its agricultural activity and the sowing of pitahaya were analyzed in a specific way. It is necessary to highlight that this crop is the main source of the local economy, however, it has been implemented in a spontaneous and disorganized way, without having a minimum technical criterion of regulation in the use and management of the soil. The pitahaya cultivation has presented an unexpected growth, accentuated in the last five years, and continues increasing. This is configured as an economic bonanza that also constitutes a problem, since it puts at risk the fragile and rich cantonal biodiversity Sangay National Park, the abundant hydric resources and the cultural losses. Besides, it deepens different problems such us: change in the use of soil; the implementation of retreats towards roads and borders; the exaggerated soil fractioning; the opening of new roads; the intensive use of agrochemicals; and the contamination of natural resources like water and air. In order to know with certainty and in depth the reality of production in the area of study, the research has been developed using quantitative and qualitative methods, such us surveys and focus group interviews. The proposal for Palora´s canton formulates a set of legal norms. Firstly, the current classification in urban soil determined by local regulations and rural soil was ratified. In the analysis of rural soil, it was sub-classified into four types of soil: productive, protection, extractive and buffer zones. Then, the intervention polygons were defined, and categories and subcategories were detail, everyone with their own areas of location at the parroquial level.

Vicente Patricio Quezada Ortega, Marco Benigno Avila Calle, Yonimiler Castillo Ortega


Analysis of the impact of the care policy for children from 1 to 3 years of age, on the well-being of their families in the case of the Chunchi.

Local development is the process of transformation of the local economy and society, it is related to well-being, growth, progress and sustainability. Local development is achieved through responsible productive development and the strengthening of society. Local development goes hand in hand with public policies that are instruments through which public authorities act, first by recognizing socially constructed problems within a community, and then, by incorporating, programming and executing actions aimed at their solution. . The Child Development Centers within the framework of comprehensive protection, are inclusive and intercultural and provide their users with the services of: receptive care, health and nutrition, play and learning space, protective environments for a free expression of emotions. This research is of a mixed cross-sectional and descriptive type, the theoretical and empirical method (survey and interview) was applied. With the results obtained, it was possible to determine that the child development centers are complying with their commitment since they house children in a state of vulnerability and poverty, local development is generated because families can work and generate income for their homes, influencing this in the reduction of gender violence. We can conclude that 100% of users feel well when they send their children to this Children's Center.

Vicky Paola Quezada Vintimilla , Mónica Briggith Rosales Namicela , Yonimiler Castillo Ortega


Social integration: A challenge in the policy of sustainable local development in the urban parish la providencia of Machala city

The purpose of this article is to establish the policies that allow achieving sustainable local development oriented towards social integration in the urban parish La Providencia of Machala city. For this purpose, leaders of 22 marginal urban neighborhoods of the parish participated, as well as departmental heads of the cantonal decentralized autonomous government (DAG) of Machala. Among the research techniques that were applied were the questionnaire, the interview and the observation, the same ones that were applied through structured instruments (interview guide, survey form and observation guide) as well as bibliographic techniques for the theoretical foundation of the object study. The study shows that despite the existence of public policies oriented through regulations such as: Organic Code of Territorial Organization, Autonomies and Decentralization (OCTOAD), National Development Plan (NDP), Land Management Plan (LMP), legal instruments and technicians aimed at achieving the well-being of its inhabitants, the latter, elaborated by the cantonal DAG of Machala, these norms are implemented more to comply with the requirements of the control organisms, than to achieve the true well-being of their territory. In this sense, planning obeys the political vision of the current ruler, in a kind of political client neglecting the true needs of the inhabitants of the sector under study, a situation that is evidenced in the lack of basic services and community infrastructure as described in this article. Based on these findings, it remains a challenge to achieve a social integration that guarantees access of all neighborhoods to basic services to improve the quality of life of the inhabitants of Machala city, particularly in La Providencia parish.

Alba Violeta Granda Granda, Viviana Verónica Carriel Bustamante, Yonimiler Castillo Ortega


model of sustainable management of the water resources of the upper micro-basin of the Santa Rosa river

Introduction: Beyond how vital water is for the survival and development of life in all its forms, we must also highlight the importance of water in the economy because it is an essential part of industrialization processes, food production and beverages, power generation, tourist activities, mining, agriculture, among others. Objective: Propose a model for the sustainable management of water resources in the upper micro-basin of the Santa Rosa River Methodology: A planning was carried out that encompasses a methodological process divided into the following stages: Theoretical analysis, Gathering of socio-economic and demographic information, Determination of environmental aspects and impacts, Establishment of the social participation process. The proposed model is an expert validated model, based on the Delphi method. Results: Special attention should be paid to the remediation of the environmental impact, as well as to the prevention and reduction of water pollution caused by heavy metals generated by mining in the area and sewage. Conclusion: The management of the water generated in the upper micro-basin of Santa Rosa should develop a strategy that involves the urban and rural population of Santa Rosa in the preservation of the water resource.

Andréi Nikolay Sánchez Rodríguez, Viviana Verónica Carriel Bustamante, Yonimiler Castillo Ortega


Addition of pet plastic bottles in the manufacture of adobe blocks for single-family homes and his effect on the variation of temperature and acoustic conditioning in the Ambato city, Tungurahua estate.

Introduction. Thermal and acoustic comfort in side of the home room’s are important characteristics to reduce the use of electrical devices used for these purposes and consequently the consumption of electrical energy or fuels, this type of savings in homes is important to reduce your expenses of basic services. With this they can increase their economic level. Objective. Analyze the results of the study of the variation of the temperature and acoustic conditioning in adobe blocks, adding plastic recycled type PET. Methodology. The research design was experimental, quantitative and qualitative. The adobe blocks were made with the Peruvian standard E.080. adding crushed PET plastic depending on the volume of the soil used being: 0%, 5%, 10% and 15%. For the analysis of temperature and sound, it was based on Chilean standards, using an airtight chamber. Results. Among the results frequently obtained are when the Percentage of PET is increased, the insulation is increased by external temperature, giving an ambient temperature of 15 ° C, with regard to the sound part, an increase in the insulation level of a 50.97% of the maximum level emitted by the source. Conclusion. The addition of materials such as PET plastic increases the acoustic and thermal insulation properties of adobe, but always maintaining a relationship with which its minimum resistance does not decrease.

Galo Wilfrido Núñez Aldás, Alex Gustavo López Arboleda, Diego Sebastián Chérrez Gavilanes, Jorge Javier Guevara Robalino


Aplicaciones de SDN en infraestructura de redes educativas

Introduction: Although the SDN originated in the academic world, the academic RENs have not widely implemented SDN in their production network, SDN gives us a new architectural direction that allows the network to be controlled in an intelligent and central way, it also allows to be programmed, using software applications. This helps operators manage the entire network efficiently, comprehensively and consistently, regardless of the underlying network technology. Objective: Determine the parameters to apply SDN correctly in educational network infrastructure Method: In order to answer the proposed research question, a methodological process divided into 2 stages is planned: Theoretical analysis and Analysis of the factors that influence the application of SDN in educational networks. Result: A perspective based on the services of the users of university communication networks is presented, and in turn, based on the research, factors related to SDN are proposed when implementing this type of networks. Conclusions The factors that are added to the design of telecommunications infrastructure when applied to a university network are: Automated management of the network. Management of network updates. Network policy language. Security. Energy efficiency. Network virtualization. Distributed SDN controllers. Network measures, Quality of service and quality of user experience QoE. IoT Devices, Smart University, Network Security.

Miguel Fabricio Bone Andrade, Jaime Darío Rodríguez Vizuete, Sandra María Sosa Calero, Luis Alfonso Núñez Freire


Pedagogical foundations for the teaching learning of physical education in a virtual modality: a current challenge

Introduction. The teaching-learning process continues at the different levels and subjects in times of COVID 19, it has demanded to go from the face-to-face mode to the virtual one. In Physical Education, this has had a considerable impact. Objective. To reflect on the importance of the applicability of the pedagogical foundations for the teaching - learning of Physical Education in the virtual modality. Methodology. The study followed a descriptive, non-experimental methodology, using theoretical methods based on the RSL (Systematic Review of Literature), making it possible to consult 25 sources related to the research topic. Results.1.- It was possible to identify 15 potentially relevant studies that contributed to systematizing the strategies followed on the importance of the applicability of the pedagogical foundations of Physical Education for its teaching-learning through the virtual modality. 2. The analysis reveals the challenge that this has meant, precisely because Physical Education is contemplated within the group of practical subjects and the limited competencies of teachers to develop the teaching-learning process in this new scenario. 3. The opportunities offered by the TICs have allowed continuity in the teaching-learning process and have a positive impact on the development of other competencies in both teachers and students. Conclusions. The analysis of the preceding theories confirm the importance of the pedagogical foundations that support Physical Education and its usefulness for the development of the teaching-learning process through the virtual modality, while being aware that the main thing is not technology as such, but the use we can make of it within the educational process. Regardless of this, migrating from the face-to-face mode to the virtual one has been a great challenge, causing the need to promote in record time the development of teaching-methodological skills and abilities in teachers and students.

Orlando Rodrigo Carrasco Coca, José Guillermo Caicedo Merizalde, Ower Armando Savedra Valdiviezo, Vanessa Lucia Ochoa Sangurima


Early stimulation as a basis for the teaching-learning processes in early childhood education.

Introduction. The application of Early Stimulation programs to promote comprehensive training and maximum development in children has been a priority task, however, making these the basis on which the teaching-learning processes are sustained continues to be a great challenge, among other aspects due to the diversity itself and the lack of equity when applying them. Objective. Reflect on the relationships that exist between both processes and the importance of Early Stimulation in achieving significant results in the teaching-learning process. Methodology. The study contemplated a descriptive, non-experimental methodology based on the Systematic Review of Literature (RSL), which made it possible to consult 29 sources related to the subject, identifying 11 relevant investigations under the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results. 1.  It is confirmed that we are in the presence of a process that is of great importance for the child's life, which in terms of its terminology has had different definitions, agreeing that it is aimed at preventing and / or compensating for possible anomalies, in the same A measure that seeks the comprehensive stimulation of all areas of the child's development, in direct connection with the socio-educational and family context. 2. To form the basis of the teaching-learning process, it presupposes determining what the objectives are to be achieved, being preceded by the realization of multidisciplinary diagnoses and having the active participation of the child and his family environment, as well as teachers or specialists with the skills required to detect, characterize, evaluate and intervene. Conclusions. It is considered a highly significant process and of great importance for the successful development of the teaching-learning process, as long as it is carried out from the vision of the integral development of the child, contemplating the stimulation of all areas. Its value lies in conceiving this from multidisciplinary, equitable and inclusive positions.

Ruth Sayonara Ríos Bayas, Sandy Janeth Coral Padilla, Orlando Rodrigo Carrasco Coca, Cristina Elizabeth Espinoza Regalado